Most likely, because you were having space issues, the publishing event was not able to complete (e.g. create the CAB and copy it to ~\WSUSContent).
The KB article advises to run wsusutil reset, which is the proper solution, but lately I've observed that command taking several hours (if not days) to complete on some WSUS servers. An alternative solution is this:
- Delete the update from WSUS using the Patch Manager console.
- Delete the file from the ~\UpdateServicesPackages share on the WSUS server.
- Republish the package.
Thank you, I used your steps and that worked.