There's a few different situations that can result in the error "has no local extended metadata. Not returning it". As this update is working for some machines I'm leaning towards datastore corruption on the affected machines.
Try running through the following steps on one of the problematic machines and let us know if the update returns a valid result.
1. Click Start, click Run, type services.msc, and then click OK.
2. In the Services (Local) pane, right-click Automatic Updates, and then click Stop.
3. Minimize the Services (local) window.
4. Rename c:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution to c:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution.old.
5. Maximize the Services (local) window.
6. In the Services (Local) pane, right-click Automatic Updates, and then click Start.
7. Restart the computer, and then run the update against this machine with the problematic update.
Couldn't this be done by using the the Windows Update Agent Maintenance and Repair options? That is if this is happening on computers distributed across a large area. He can delete the Software Distribution Folder and sub-folders plus more. Though as a test I'd definitely do this first. If you want to do this via command line instead the string for stopping/starting Auto Update is net stop/start uwauserv. Could batch it out as I've actually had trouble running the Agent repair correctly thus far.
Indeed this can be done withing Patch Manager, however I like to start off with the least invasive procedure first. If something odd happens, or this isn't the issue you can always roll back this change. With the Windows Update Maintenance function within Patch Manager there's no going back as it's a delete command.
Thanks David, that did it. Do you know what causes the database to become corrupted? Are there any precautions that I can take to help prevent it or to detect it before it begins to cause problems?