Were these Microsoft updates, 3rd Party Updates Pack updates, or locally built packages?
Generally when a package is recorded as Install Success in the Task History, but the WUAgent reports the task as failed, it's an indication that the Success Return codes defined in the package definition are not correct.
If these are Microsoft updates, this would be an issue to take up with Microsoft.
If these are 3rd Party Updates Pack updates, we definitely want to know which updates are affected so we can investigate further.
If these are locally built packages, then you'll want to valid your Installed Ruleset in those package definitions. Note also that installing to x64 systems sometimes has special requirements, particularly when it involves 32-bit products.
These are Microsoft patches, all 57/58 of them.
Thing is, that these patches have all installed an an exact same server, with exact same OS and applications installed, with no failures.
OK, back to the drawing board.