Yes.It will impact on your database performance and volume.
Also increase your polling rate so you see decrease of your speed.
For example I have a monitoring server with 29 node elements and 2562 interfaces and with Statistics Polling interval in 1 min so my polling rate is 104%.
I suggest you to use additional poller and distribute your node between pollers.
also put you database server on a physical server with optimised hardware.
With those polling rates, you would quite simply have a 12X increase in ICMP and a 10X increase in statistics polling.
So as long as your overall polling performance is under ~10% you should get away with it.
But an increase in the number of objects being polled, would add additional load and could push it over the 100% polling rate very quickly.
When the polling rate is exceeded, the Orion platform will automatically throttle it back, as we reached poller saturation (before buying more additional polling engines), the first thing we noticed was the statistics polling interval increased from the default 5 to 10 minutes.
As saeron mentioned, there is also the additional load on the database, which will be handling 10X the data in the same time period.
Personally I would only up the polling rate on devices that really need that level of detail and then only when something is being troubleshot.
Even then, using Windows perfrmon locally on the server can give better troubleshooting data (which gives down to the second resolution).
And don't forget the new real-time polling functionality of PerfStack - Real-Time Polling - Because Time is The Only Constant