You can use Win10 Pro to get updates from a WSUS and PM server. My organization is also moving to Win10 Pro from Win7 Pro, and I've been testing with some Win10 Pro computers. The group policy is a little wonky to point the clients to the WSUS server, especially since we are using 2008 R2 servers, but it does work. It should be easier if you are also using Server 2016 or 2012.
Hope that helps.
You can definitely control updates for Windows 10 Pro with WSUS and patch manager. Microsoft is walking back on a lot of needing enterprise for everything business related after so much pushback from the community. There are also GPOs that do not respond to a Win10 Pro SKU so familiarize yourself with them because you can end up enabling dual scan with WUfB on accident which is a pain. Also be aware that upgrading win 10 branches through WSUS is not a nice experience for the end users in time taken. It requires a login to complete which obviously doesnt happen until the next morning or whatever and then in my experience there was a 1-2 hour "setting up windows" where the user was down. I ended up using PDQ deploy for it which bypasses the login requirement and upgrades fine.
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Same here, we've had no problems patching Win10 Pro with WSUS running on a 2012R2 server. Just make sure you don't touch any of the Windows Update For Business (WufB) GPO settings or you can have machines reaching out to MS for updates instead of your WSUS server. Why WSUS and SCCM managed clients are reaching out to Microsoft Online | Windows Server Blog
They were supposed to fix that issue in later builds but we haven't tested those yet as we are still deploying 1607.