Following my previous post about logging, I'd like to talk about another tool to manage logs that is more advanced than syslog.
Logwatch is essentially a system log analyzer and reporter. It elaborates logs that are simply collected by syslog. This kind of evolution is simplifying the daily job of modern system and network administrators. Logs are everywhere and almost everything produces logs -- not only specific IT systems, but also the elements forming the so-called "Internet of Things," or IoT. The innovation comes from this last application: "things" producing logs could be managed in a smarter way if those logs are analysed and reported to elaborate behavior to perform consequently.
This tool is a very simple one, but, at the same time, is very powerful. In its first form it is only CLI and structured in directories.
The real power (but not the only one) of Logwatch is the possibility to shape its behavior according to the administrator’s needs. Shaping the tool could be simple or more articulated, but it should be possible to allow the administrator to carry out their daily job as easily as possible so they could redirect their attention to solve the issues that these tools could reveal.
Customizing also means filtering, as described in my last post. Filtering would be easier if the tool would emphasize the keywords to be filtered. So, the first customization should be catching these keywords using variables in the main configuration. As an example, we could be interested in raising an alert log when a website will return a 500 error, but only after “n” times, and not immediately because we already know that this webserver is supported by an application server, which could be overloaded in particular known situations. No need to produce tons of logs when we already know that the issue occurs in the app server (THIS is the issue to solve, not the error coming from webserver).
This process implies a previous analysis by the administrator, as you can understand. As usual, this is a tool, and it works according to your decisions. It can’t make its own decisions. Other more advanced tools could give inputs and advice, but not these basics tools.
Different services may have different logging configurations. At the same time, some services could be ignored, others overridden. Furthermore, security level – there are services not so critical so that logging accuracy can be lower, other that are high-security related, which need a very high production of logs. These different behaviors are written in Perl in the case of Logwatch.
Conversely, there are cases when we need not different behavior but instead a homogeneous output: the case of different IoT components, produced by different vendors and logging in various ways. For an easier and more effective comprehension, customization of log writing and processing can “normalize” the logs written by any of them, and helping a comparison between behaviors.
We can compare an advanced tool like Logwatch with more basic ones like syslog based mainly on the scripting and the ability to choose how to behave in different situations. Syslog only allows the administrator to filter the most representative lines for troubleshooting. Logwatch can build a particular structure of the line itself, and then filter it based on this shape, being a friendlier helper for the advanced administrator. In this way, troubleshooting and monitoring will improve, and a better analysis and developing new models to apply to log writing will increase.