“One hundred twenty countries currently have or are developing offensive cyber attack capabilities, which is now viewed as the fifth dimension of warfare after space, sea, land and air…” - Jamie Shea, NATO Director of Policy Planning
In cyber warfare, as in any kind of warfare, there are two types of players: those on offense and those on defense. Many countries have offensive capabilities, though none rival those of the United States. All we have to do to confirm this anecdotally is to review some of the past years’ headlines of hacking attacks against foreign nations, ostensibly by the NSA or NSA-affiliated entities. I would also encourage you to view the 2014 Data Breach Investigations Report compiled by Verizon for an extensive list of attack vectors from the past year.
While offensive capabilities are, if not easy to develop and execute, at least fairly ubiquitous, defense is another matter entirely. As a nation we are largely able to defend key strategic military assets, but not all of them. We are able to defend our financial sector somewhat, though not as successfully as with our military assets. Most private enterprises that fall into the “other” category are either undefended today, indefensible due to lack of knowledge, staffing, or willpower, or have already been compromised. We are not good at defense.
Two approaches to this are needed. The first is for entities like the NSA and private corporations to have the ability to share information (not a forced mandate) and react using the resources of each, while still maintaining privacy. Most large enterprises immediately call in the government once they’re aware of a hack, so why can’t the government work with them proactively to mitigate attacks in the early stages?
The second approach, taken by only the largest of companies, is to monitor everything on their networks at full wire speed (no small task), and then to feed that real-time information into a big-data engine. Run real time analytics using something like SAP Hana where the sheer volume of information can be analyzed in real time. This generates alerts based on real-time anomaly detection in a much more sophisticated way than any IDS/IPS ever could, but it’s still missing one piece: the ability to remediate in real time. This is one of the use cases for SDN—something that I may explore in another post.
What approaches are you taking today? What approach would you take if you had an unlimited budget to work with? What other suggestions do you have beyond the things we’re doing today?